Part II

Mădălina- Elena MIHĂILESCU, Ph.D. candidate, Authorities that Identify and Apply Contraventional Sanctions in Various Fields
This paper attempts to be an X-ray of the evolution of the authorities which, over time, had the opportunity to ascertain and punish contraventions, starting with the 19th century and  up to 1990-2000. First, it wishes to highlight the shift from the general attribution that certain authorities had to ascertain and punish contraventions, to their specialization, which was caused by the changes at social, economic, and particulary political level, but it also considers certain issues related to material and territorial jurisdiction of the ascertaining agents.

Keywords: penalties, contraventions, minute, ascertainting agents
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