Parts III - IV

Ramona POPESCU, Ph.D. Candidate, Elena Simina TĂNĂSESCU, Ph. D in Law, Professor, On Responsibility in Public Law
In legal literature and sociology the two concepts of responsibility and liability are currently used with identical or very similar meaning. Legal liability is the speciae of the genus proximus responsibility. While responsibility refers to an activity developed freely by the agent, from its own initiative, and on the basis of a choice among possible objectives and possible means of achieving them, liability presupposes the accomplishment of certain obligations or the respect of specific restrictions, all imposing to the agent their strict observance. Although not always as clear and precise as criminal or civil liability, particularly with regard to its conditions and effects, responsibility is part and parcel of the concept of a modern and democratic State. Liability of public authorities had been progressively established since the 19th century and has been inducive of specific forms of protection for various categories of holders of a political mandate.
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